Defining the concept of "alive" is of great importance in biology, medicine, law, economics, politics and so on. However, to date the concept of "living" is used only in the subjective, meaning. The notion of "an alive" can determined as an epithet (e.g., "man was still alive."). Error of detecting of the presence of life can be fatally for whom else could have been saved. As an adjective, this concept may reflect systems with fuzzy properties that have the highest degree of uncertainty and having mechanism for adaptation (e.g., "by all accounts, it was a living creature.")
So, the live object - is a material object, which is exchanging with the environment of information, energy and by the matter, can reproduce itself, be able to maintain homeostasis of its own structure, function and entropy.
The base of any living is the presence of basic information mechanism. This mechanism at their level scans the environment to create a model of her condition. This model must adequately reflect its requirements. Meeting the requirements of the medium can provide optimal opportunities for adaptation and its own security. The more accurate the image of a medium in the body, it has the best opportunities to reduce its tectological hostility (by A.A. Bogdanov). This is the first and most important condition for any organism to stay alive.
The simplest form of life organization provides the mechanism of the spontaneous reversible ultrahigh-frequency hydration ↔ dehydration of the living protein. The next level of life organization has a genetic mechanism that runs in the systemic unity with living protein. The living protein at this level is a subsystem of the genetic apparatus. The next level of the informational mechanism of the life is the nerve cell, in the systemic unity (the nerve cell+genetical apparatus+the living protein). In the structure of the brain operates his own all three evolutionarily preceding him the basic information systems. Finally the basic informational mechanism on the level of consciousness is reflection. Systemic structure of it apparatus includes a reflection and basic phenomena of subsystems of all previous information mechanisms.
Now it is clear that a living organism, it is such a body, which employs phylogenetically itsinherent high-grade information apparatus. Biologists agree with this, but lawyers disagree. For lawyers, the death of one of the basic information units of the organism, for example, the loss of consciousness in humans does not mean that it is legally animal.
Today we see the powerful the expansion of speculation of biologists - "the creation of artificial life." Genetics, altering the structure of a gene, convince the layman about artificially created living organism. This is a hoax, because the body did not create, but only changed. Biochemists and proteomics received proteo-polypeptide complexes, capable of operating for a given program; also assure the creation of artificial life. However, protein-polypeptide "organisms" - is absurd, because they do not have some sort of "soul life" - the phenomenon of spontaneous ultra-high reversible hydration ↔ dehydration protein. It was with the advent of this basic information tool began life on the planet.
And what is a nonliving?